Spirulina Stops the Proliferation of Lung Cancer Cells - Independent Research
Powerful antioxidants in spirulina stop the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer cells while protecting healthy non-cancerous cells. Independent research verifies that Spirulina could be a promising treatment of cancer cells.
Spirulina extract has a concentration-dependent antioxidant effect.
Spirulina could damage the cancer cells by affecting the cell cycle.
Spirulina could protect the normal cells through its antioxidant activity.
Spirulina forces the cancer cells to apoptose (self-destruct) through biochemical alterations.
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world: third most common cancer among men and the fourth common cancer among women.
Lung cancer is divided into two main groups of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC includes more than 85% of lung cancers.
Oxidative stress is caused by a lack of balance in the body's redox status in which free radicals increase which leads to tissue damage. The free radicals are mainly divided into two forms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
ROS/oxidative stress leads to cancer, metastasis, and invasion.
ROS can react with DNA which leads to miscoding during replication. This may lead to several irreversible mutations in the genome that leads to cancerous state. Source
Antioxidants are generally compounds which reduce the damage done by reactive oxygen species.
Spirulina is a rich source of biological products including antioxidants and important compounds (phycocyanin, chlorophyll, myxoxanthophyll, beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and xanthophyll).
Spirulina activates cellular antioxidant enzymes, inhibits lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, scavenges free radicals, and increases the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Source
The present study has been conducted to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Spirulina on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.
A spirulina extract was prepared.
Non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) were obtained and cultured.
An MTT cytotoxicity assay was conducted to measure the cytotoxic (cancer cell killing) activity of the spirulina extract on A549 and HFF cell lines.
The level of antioxidant activity of various concentrations of spirulina extract were measured.
Triplicate sets of cultures were treated with different concentrations of spirulina extract for 24 hours.
Results were measured using Flow-cytometric analysis, ROS assay, membrane lipid peroxidation, evaluation of cell necrosis and apoptosis rates, and the production of LDH.
Results showed that the viability of A549 lung cancer cells had a reverse relation to the concentration of the algal extract, which means with the increase in extract concentration, the viability of A549 cells was decreased.
According to the results of the present study along with the previous studies, it appears that Spirulina extract has significant inhibitory effects on cancer cells and at the same time protects the normal cells.
Results showed that Spirulina extract had a remarkable effect on the lung cancer cell cycle and arrests the cell cycle in phase G2; so the cells didn't enter phase M and the proliferation of cancer cells was prevented.
It stops the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
Therefore, Spirulina could be a potential and promising factor for possible treatments of cancer cells.
Study the antioxidant effects of blue-green algae Spirulina extract on ROS and MDA production in human lung cancer cells
Spiruliving Institute is a non-profit dedicated to building awareness of the benefits of fresh and fresh-frozen (never dried) spirulina for cancer prevention, as an alternative and/or complementary treatment, and as a functional treatment for cancer survivors to boost health and prevent cancer recurrence.
We curate independent research and make it available to the public.